wiki:D.G. Phalke

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Dhundiraj Govind Phalke

Pioneering director aka Dadasaheb Phalke. Born in Trymbakeshwar, Nasik. Claimed to have started the film industry in India with Raja Harisbchandra. Saw his cinema as a direct contribution to Swadeshi. Son of Sanskrit scholar. Studied at J.J. School of Art (1885) and at Kala Bhavana, Baroda (see art schools). Then studied architecture. Became proficient a.~ landscape painter of academic nature studies. Worked in photographic studio and learnt to develop and print negative film. At Ratlam studied three-colour blockmaking. phowlithography and ceramics (1890). Worked as portrait photographer, stage make-up man, assisDnt to a German illusionist and as a magi~ian (as Professor Kelpha). Started Phalke's Art Printing & Engraving Works at Lonavala (1908), later Laxmi Art Printing Works. Did photolitho transfers of Ravi V arma oleographs. Sailed to Germany to obtain three- colour printing equipment (1909). Saw The Life ofChrist around Christmas 1910 in a Bombay cinema, an event he describes with great passion although contempora1-y notices suggest it must h:lVe been around Easter 1911. Strongly moved by the 'magic' of cinema. also dedicated himself to bringing Indian images to the ·screen. Raised finance from Yeshwant Nadkarni. a photographic equipment dealer, with short trick film, Birtb ofa Pea Plant, shooting one frame a day to show a plant growing.
1ent to London in February 1912 to familiarise himself with filn1 technology and to acquire equipment. Bought a Williamson camera, Kodak negative and a perforator. Cecil Hepworth tutored him at \Valton Studios. Returned to establish Phalke Films on Dadar Main Road in Bombay 0912) for wh'ch he made five films, starting wirh RaJa? Harisbchandm. \X'cnt to Eng!Jnd again in 1914 to organise trade ohowo and recci1·ed many offers to remain in Europe. Rc:turned to India witl1 new equipment, closed Phalke Films and set up rhe Hindustan Cinema Films (1918). Resigned briefly from Hindustan to write the Nlarathi play Rangbhoomi (1922) in Benares. Made c.44 silent features, .1everal shorts and one talkie, Gaugavatarau. The films introduced the mythological genre to Indian cinema, allowing him to merge his notion of Swadeshi with an mdustrial practice and a politico-cultural aesthetic. s~nish Bahadur compiled the film D.C. Pbalke, the First Indian Film Directorfor the Fill (1964): the film contains the only existing footage of How Films Are Made, footage of himself directing Raja Harisbchandra, and Setu Bmzdhan, and is a tribute nor only to the founder of the Indian film industry but also to a daring experimenter with animation techniques (including match- sticks), inventor of promotional films and of documentaries, creator of special effects and codifier of a new generic form, the my1hological film. Essays on film, 'Bh;iratiya Chitrapat', were published in Navyug (1917-8).

FILMOGRAPHY 1913: Birtb o f a Pea Plant (Sh); Raja Harishchandra; 1914: Pi/hache Panje (Sh): Scenes ofthe River Godavari (Sh); l'vfohini Bbasmasw; Satyavan Savitri; 1915: Glass ruetory at Talegaon (Sh); 1916: Dhumrapan Ler!a (Sh); Laksbmicha Galicha (Sh); Sanlagna Ras (ShJ; Swapna Vihar (Sh); Professor Kelpba 's Magic (Shl; Kartiki Purnima Ut)·av (Sh); 1917: Aagkadyancba Mauja (Shl; Dhandbal Bbatjiche Gangasnaan (Sh): How Films Are Made (Sh); Raja Harisbchandra; Lanka Dahan; 1918: Sbri Krishnajamna; 1919: Sinhastba Parvani (Sh); Kaliya Mardan: 1922: Gajandravacbe Bbagya (1,Sh); Patwardhan sRoyal Circus (Sh); Sam Namdev (?J; 1923: nJe Tbirtv-Seventb Cava Congres,(?) (DocJ; Unusual Scenesfrom Bodhgayd}) (l)oc); jamsandba Fadha; Mabananda; Babntwahan; BuddbadezJ. Ashwatbama; Gunt Dronacharya; 1924: Shimjicbi Agryahun Sutaka; Municipal Elections: Vinchucha Dcmsb; 1925: Gcmesh Utsav(') (Sh); Ellora Caves (ShJ; Vichitra Sbilpa (Sh); Kbod Modali (Sh); l'acbanbbang (Sh); Khandalracba Gbal (Sh); Simantak Mani; Hidimb Bakasur Vadha; Kakasabebancbya Dolyatjhanjbanit Anjan; Cbaturtbicha Cbandra; Satyabbama; 1926: Nasbikcha Panjmpol (Sh); Sant Eknath; janaki Suuyamvm; Bbakta Prablad: Bajaji Nimbalkar, 1927: RugmangadJ'vfobini; Nala Damayanti; Hanumanjanma; Draupadi Vastrahamn; Bbakta Sudama; Rukmini Haran; 1928: Kumari Millcbe Shuddbikaran \Sh); Sbri Krishna Sbisbtai; Parashuram; Bbailta Damaji; 1929: Malavikagnirnitra; Chandrabasa; Vasantsena; Bolki Tapeli; Sarli Afeerabai; Kacha Deuayani; Malati Madhau, 1932: Setu Bandban (all St); 1937: Gaugavataran.

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